Brexit will cost young people up to £108,000 each in lost earnings, according to a new report

The report, entitled ‘Young People and Brexit’, by Thomas Peto, an economic researcher at the University of Oxford, also points to other ways the young will be punished by Brexit, including:

  • The loss of freedom of movement – with 78 per cent of 18 to 20-year-olds saying they will miss the right to live and work across the continent.
  •  They are disproportionately agency and part-time workers – where EU protections were resisted by the UK and are “most at risk of repeal after Brexit”.
  • The threat to EU youth education, training and employment initiatives – including the Erasmus+ scheme, allowing students to live and work abroad.
  • The minimum income threshold for UK nationals to bring foreign spouses or children into the country is set to be extended to EU nationals.
  • Some data protection rights will be lost – which will “particularly affect a generation who have grown up online”.

The report also cites polling suggesting that 71 per cent of 18-24-year-olds voted Remain in the 2016 referendum and that 84 per cent of 18-20-year-olds would do so now.

Life after BREXIT: What are the UK’s options outside the European Union? By Swati Dhingra and Thomas Sampson

  • It is highly uncertain what the UK’s future would look like outside the European Union
    (EU), which makes ‘Brexit’ a leap into the unknown. This report reviews the advantages
    and drawbacks of the most likely options.
  • After Brexit, the EU would continue to be the world’s largest market and the UK’s
    biggest trading partner. A key question is what would happen to the three million EU
    citizens living in the UK and the two million UK citizens living in the EU?
  • There are economic benefits from European integration, but obtaining these benefits
    comes at the political cost of giving up some sovereignty. Inside or outside the EU, this
    trade-off is inescapable.
  • One option is ‘doing a Norway’ and joining the European Economic Area. This would
    minimise the trade costs of Brexit, but it would mean paying about 83% as much into the
    EU budget as the UK currently does. It would also require keeping current EU regulations
    (without having a seat at the table when the rules are decided).
  • Another option is ‘doing a Switzerland’ and negotiating bilateral deals with the EU.
    Switzerland still faces regulation without representation and pays about 40% as much as
    the UK to be part of the single market in goods. But the Swiss have no agreement with
    the EU on free trade in services, an area where the UK is a major exporter.
  • A further option is going it alone as a member of the World Trade Organization. This
    would give the UK more sovereignty at the price of less trade and a bigger fall in income,
    even if the UK were to abolish tariffs completely.
  • Brexit would allow the UK to negotiate its own trade deals with non-EU countries. But as
    a small country, the UK would have less bargaining power than the EU. Canada’s trade
    deals with the United States show that losing this bargaining power could be costly for
    the UK.
  • To make an informed decision on the merits of leaving the EU, voters need to know more
    about what the UK government would do following Brexit.
  • This is the first in a series of briefings analysing the economic costs and benefits of Brexit
    for the UK.


Promoting Youth Involvement and Social Engagement: Opportunities and challenges for ‘conflicted’ young people across Europe.

The full report presents a collection of standardised country reports from the ten partner countries involved in PROMISE. Using the most recent data available from macro-indicators and surveys, each country report provides a national baseline of the attitudes, activities and social involvement of young people. The macro-indicators used to describe the national context are used consistently throughout to allow comparison. In particular, each country report provides an overview of the general ‘state of the country’s health’; the situation that young people face; how young people feel about their situation; and what, if anything, they are doing to change it.


PROMISE explored the ways young people with a history of stigmatisation or conflict participate in society. The focus was on the different ways they engage with social, environmental and political issues, and how they create opportunities for social change. The following recommendations on Promoting Youth Involvement and Social Engagement in Europe are based on ethnographic case studies with young people and quantitative research using the European Value Survey and other secondary data sources.